What is Knee Arthritis?

Partial Knee Replacement

3D Surgical Animation

Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy – Fulkerson Procedure

3D Surgical Animation

The knee is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It consists of 4 bones, multiple ligaments, muscles and tendons, cartilage and soft tissue. The boney structures of the knee consist of the patella (knee cap), Femur (thigh bone), Tibia and Fibula (lower leg bones). The smoothness motion of the knee is accomplished through articular cartilage and fibrocartilage. Articular cartilage is the protective covering over the ends of the bones. Meniscus is the additional form of cartilage within the knee called fibrocartilage. The purpose of your two meniscuses (medial – inside and lateral – outside) is to act as cushions between your femur (thigh bone) and tibia (lower leg bone). Both kinds of cartilage allow the joint to glide permitting fluid motion during active and passive activities. The breakdown of either one of these cartilaginous structures can advance arthritic changes.

Articular Cartilage

Medial and Lateral Meniscus – Fibrocartilage

There are several types of arthritis and your physician will need to determine which joint is effected and by which type of arthropathy. Osteoarthritis or “wear and tear” by definition is inflammation of a joint. When the process of cartilage breakdown begins and progresses, the joint will become stiff and painful. Osteoarthritis can occur in any active or non-active individual but usually affects individuals over the age of 50 but can be seen in earlier aged individuals depending on their occupation or their specific sport.